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Jimmy Carter, Founding Father of the Beer Revolution

[ 151 ] August 18, 2011 |

I don’t even know if Jimmy Carter drinks alcohol, but this Tom Philpott piece on the struggles of the beer conglomerates to keep control over the market suggests that no one did more to facilitate the microbrew revolution than our favorite Baptist president.

First, this interesting chart on the rise and fall of beer variety:

The United States used to produce a huge variety of different beers. Most breweries never reopened after Prohibition, but there was still a good variety (though mostly of homogenized lagers by this point). Still, most regions of the country had several local beers to compete with the growing conglomerates.

By 1979, most of these local brewers were no more. I remember a few from growing up in the Pacific Northwest–Henry Weinhard, Olympia, Rainier, Lucky. Friends of mine a bit older could remember beers like Great Falls Select. But most were gone. However, in that year, President Carter deregulated the beer industry, allowing the sale of malt, hops, and yeast to home brewers. Thus began the microbrew revolution. From the perspective of Miller executives, this sucks because they have to produce an ever-increasing number of beers to keep control of the market. I mean, if everyone just drank piss, we could make so much money!

From my perspective of course, this is an unadulterated good. Not only has it allowed the United States to become second only to Belgium in the production of quality beer (and I’ll take an argument that the US is #1), but it has opened the minds of even people who would normally be happy to drink crappy beer. I mean, Shock Top and Blue Moon are not good beers, but they are better than Bud Light.

And thus we make a mark in the good column when discussing Carter.

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Comments (151)

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  1. BradP says:

    Free Market Fairy!!!!

    • mpowell says:

      Lol. Hey, I’m a liberal not a communist. I think there are plenty of areas where opening markets increases total value.

    • Tony says:

      Okay this article is nothing but bullcrap propaganda. James Carter was NEVER the founding father of the craft beer industry. The author should get their facts straight and actually do the background work. If they did they would see that everyone in US was allowed to buy Malts and such ingredients during the 70’s as well as before and after it. The article is either a lie or just a piss poor job by the author!

      • Jack Burton Mercer says:

        Carter signed a bill that included decriminalizing home-brewing. That in itself led to the renewed interest in good beer here and worldwide. Also, he did some other deregulating that made smaller breweries, and other businesses, profitable.

  2. Njorl says:

    I’m sure Jimmy got sloshed in his heart.

  3. c u n d gulag says:

    Jimmy Carter:

    ‘Hoppy Days are here again!’

  4. c u n d gulag says:

    Since coming to America, my Uncle worked as a machinist for pretty much every brewery in NY City from the 50’s to the early-mid 70’s.

    When they closed, he then commuted upstate NY on Mondays, and went home to Queens on Fridays.
    Sometimes he’s stop off and drop off a few cases of the beer whose company he worked for for my father and me.
    As I remember, he worked for Piels, Shaefe in NY City, and I think Schlitz and Ballentine upstate. None of them will ever be cofused with some of today’s geat beers, but let me tell you, when you’re a teenager, there’s no such thing as a bad beer.

    I still love an ice cold Ballentine Ale on a hot summer day.

  5. firefall says:

    Wasn’t Jimmy’s brother famously fond of beer?

  6. Scott Lemieux says:

    United States to become second only to Belgium in the production of quality beer (and I’ll take an argument that the US is #1)

    Correct. And Germany is far below either.

    • kmfg says:

      Had some german colleagues visiting who weren’t very happy when I told them something like this.

      I’m a huge fan of many different German beers.

    • Erik Loomis says:

      Anyone who tried to claim this title for Germany or, god forbid, Ireland, could not be taken seriously.

      • Anonymous says:

        I think it was more of an issue of national pride as these particular colleagues didn’t seem too versed in beer.

      • Mrs Tilton says:

        I think even few Germans (except possibly the Bild-Zeitung readers) would claim that Germany makes the world’s greatest beers. (Hell, they don’t even make the world’s greatest German beers; that would be the Czech Republic.)

        Thing about Germany is, it’s really hard to make a truly bad beer. Even though the ancient Reinheitsgebot, the Beer Purity Law, is now, thanks to the EU, more like the Pirate Code, German brewers stick to it. And when you make your beer from water, barley malt, yeast and hops*, and nothing else, it’s going to be half-decent at worst.

        The basic drinkability of almost all German beers is in spite of, not because of the brewers. There is still a bewildering plethora of labels out there, but almost all of those you see regularly are now nothing more than brands of a big faceless concern. For example, Binding used to be a small regional beer competing with the equally small and undistinguished Henninger. Henninger disappeared when the two breweries merged (the beer, not the company; the old Henninger was the survivor but adopted its victims name). It is now the biggest brewer in the country, having bought up better-known brands kike Jever in the north, Radeberger in the east, Schöfferhoffer Weissbier and Sion Kölsch — all now marketed nationally. They don’t bother marketing Binding outside Frankfurt, though. You can drink it (thanks, Reinheitsgebot!), but it’s powerfully meh. (Not surprising; beer is not Frankfurt’s traditional tipple and the city have no great brwering tradition.) These companies would happily brew beer as cheaply and crappily and as full of sawdust and propylene glycol and high-fructose corn syrup as Anheuser Busch do, if they could only get away with it. But they can’t; Germans wouldn’t buy it. As with so much else in Germany, it’s not about excellence, it’s about adhering to well-established minimum standards.

        Sidenote 1. What I said above is only partly applicable in the south. You will still find small local breweries everywhere in the country, but in most places are rapidly disappearing into the maw of the Bindings etc., and the survivors are rarities. But in Württemberg and Bavaria, time has stood still in brewing as in so much else, and it remains the rule rather than the exception that every small town has its own brewery (or two). And these beers are often very good indeed. You just need to know about them and be in an area where they’re available. Of course, they’re not very dramatic, so if you’re a beer bore, you’ll be happier sticking with soemthing from Dogfish Head with enough hops to cause hallucinations, or a traditional 80-proof Trappist Cherry Ghghgheuze.

        Sidenote 2. When the World Cup was in Germany a few years ago, Sepp Blatter signed a deal with Anheuser Busch under which the only beer sold in the stadia was Budweiser. American Budweiser. It’s obvious why Blatter did this. Oh sure, FIFA made money out of the deal; FIFA always make money. But Blatter is Swiss, and therefor axiomatically hates the Germans. It would be naive to say that Blatter will roast in hell for what he did — there are plenty of reason’s he’ll be spitted and barbecues in the hereafter even if he had personally brought frosty mugs of Czech Budweiser to me as I watched S.Korea beat Togo. But surely that little stunt earns him an extra mopping with sauce as the spit turns.

        * Cheap labels replace some or all hops with hop extract, which is within the law. Still, the law limits the damage the brewer can do. The worst German beer will always be better than the best American mass-market beer.

        • Mrs Tilton says:

          Great Cthulhu’s Gizzard, that comment is glistening with typos even by my standards. I assure you this is not because I have been conducting hands-on comparative beer research as I type. Rather, it is before breakfast, and I have not yet had me tea.

        • Halloween Jack says:

          I’ve never been to Germany, so maybe I’ve just never had the good stuff before it goes over, but based on my samplings here (in a town with a lot of nth-generation German Americans and some more-or-less authentic German restaurants), the German beers that I’ve had have varied quite a lot in quality. Also, WRT the inappropriateness of beer concessions, our town has also had years in which the exclusive vendor of beer at the local Irish Fest was Anheuser-Busch and Leinenkugel. At least A-B had Bare Knuckle, their mostly-palatable attempt at eating Guinness’ lunch, but even though Leinie isn’t the worst beer out there… well, let’s just not talk about it.

    • Ronnie P says:

      The US has actually become quite influential overseas. Belgians brew IPAs with Belgian yeast (mostly to export to us, I think), and breweries such as Brew Dog in Scotland and Mikeller in Denmark are heavily influenced by the American scene.

      I think the Germans may come around too. They have some breweries there who want to experiment a bit more.

      • Jay B. says:

        There are some delicious Belgium style IPAs floating around on taps in the L.A. area. The best i ever had was a very fresh limited edition barrel from the people who run Fat Tire, I think it was called Belgo. It was transcendent. Stone does a pretty good version called Cal-Belgique. I’m not a huge fan of the Belgian versions — Chouffe, etc. they taste pretty much exactly like traditional goldens– but I love the thought.

        • Mrs Tilton says:

          Jay, no snark, but what is “Belgian-style IPA”? I have always thought of IPA as an English brewing style, and indeed a relatively obscure one until it became all the rage with American craft brewers.

          • Nathan Williams says:

            It’s a description being applied to some beers that are brewed strong, hoppy, and fairly pale, like (American) IPAs, but with some Belgian flavors, usually from the yeast.

          • befuggled says:

            It’s along the lines of a golden ale or a trippel but hopped like an IPA (often with American hops). You can find them made in both America and Belgium. The only one I remember seeing in the wild is Carolus.

  7. jc says:

    Belgium *might* beat the US for Belgian styles (debatable), but the US is far and beyond better for pretty much everything else IMO.

    Try finding a decent, local IPA or stout in Belgium. Now try to find a decent, local quad or sour in the US.

  8. ploeg says:

    From my perspective of course, this is an unadulterated good.

    Or in some cases, an adulterated good.

    Personally, I’m not one to turn up my nose at an occasional Bud Light (though a good Blatz serves the purpose just as well and is a lot less expensive). But let a thousand hops bloom, eh?

  9. We are living in a great time to be a beer drinker, but not everyplace is equally favored. Chicago is a surprisingly hard town to find a good brew (although Hopleaf is an exception). You can find good beer in St. Louis, but you have to hunt for it. For a long time the New York metro area wasn’t all that, but it has improved.

    • Michael Furlan says:

      Chicago, the home of Goose Island, next door to Three Floyds in NW Indiana, a hard place to find a good brew?

      • elm says:

        Yeah, I immediately thought Goose Island when I read Bill’s comment.

        • wengler says:

          You mean InBev subsidiary, Goose Island? The same Goose Island that moved production of its signature Chicago beer 312 to an upstate New York Budweiser facility?

          Sorry, this is kind of personal for us that live around here.

          • elm says:

            Huh, didn’t know that. I moved away from Chicago about a decade ago and guess I didn’t keep up with the local beer scene.

          • Seitz says:

            First of all, 312 and Honkers really aren’t all that great. Second, if ABInbev wants to give John Hall a ton of money for those brands so that Hall can continue to make Sofie, Madame Rose, Juliet, and the variety of Bourbon County Brand Stouts, among others, that’s fine with me. Goose’s best beers aren’t the ones that are easy to find on shelves.

            • kmfg says:

              except they paid Hall a ton of money to go away

              • Seitz says:

                You might be thinking of Greg, not John. Greg is the son. John’s the (former) owner, who is still very much involved in the process.

                • kmfg says:

                  AH, sorry. At the risk of being completely wrong again I think Greg had a little too much fun after hearing about his payout and got naughty in a chicago bar.

                  Its good to know that they will still be making some of those tasties.

      • The Goose Island line doesn’t do much for me– it seems like the Midwest version of Sam Adams, good in a pinch, certainly better than most mass-produced stuff, but not really all that. In my experience Indiana is uniquely favored with an abundance of terrific beer. Even crappy chains like Fridays have great taps in the Hoosier State.

        And yeah, I know what Hopleaf is. It is an oasis where you can escape the mundane taps that most of Chicago has on offer.

        • kmfg says:

          Try Maproom, village tap, publican, sheffields, etc.

        • Scott Lemieux says:

          The Goose Island line doesn’t do much for me– it seems like the Midwest version of Sam Adams, good in a pinch, certainly better than most mass-produced stuff, but not really all that.


          • Seitz says:

            See my comment above, but while Goose’s everyday beers are sort of meh, their Belgians and stouts are off the charts good. There’s a reason that Goose had two of the top five beers on BeerAdvocate’s 2010 list.

    • kmfg says:

      Goose Island
      Half Acre
      Two Brothers
      Three Floyds (Munster IN but, close enuf)

    • kmfg says:

      and hopleaf is a bar, not a brewery. there are tons of bars in chicago serving all manner of wonderful microbrews.

    • Erik Loomis says:

      “We are living in a great time to be a beer drinker, but not everyplace is equally favored”

      This is absolutely true, with many parts of the South lagging way behind (though there are some good southern beers).

    • Henry says:

      Yeah I was surprised about Chicago. Restaurants had very limited selection and Liquor stores were not much better.

    • Scott Lemieux says:

      It’s not that hard to find Bell’s in Chicago…

      • livex says:

        It is, in fact, damn easy to find Bell’s in Chicago. Three Floyd’s and even New Glarus, also not too hard. And various Dogfish Heads in plenty of places, too. If you know where to look.

        • Seitz says:

          Actually, it’s impossible to legally find New Glarus in Chicago. They don’t distribute outside of Wisconsin. You can, however, stock up at the Cheese Castle just over the border. You can also head over to New Buffalo and stock up on Short’s Brewing, which doesn’t distribute outside of Michigan.

          Three Floyds is hard to find on shelves, but a lot of places have it on tap, and they’re always well stocked at the brewpub. I usually make a point to pick up a case when I’m in the area.

          • livex says:

            hmmm … I could’ve sworn I’ve seen New Glarus about town, but maybe I’m confusing it with a trip to Milwaukee!
            The 3F Alpha King is a fixture at most of my bars!

            • kmfg says:

              big fan of Dreadnaught

            • Seitz says:

              I’ve heard there are places that will go pick it up and truck it in from time to time, but I doubt it lasts long. No one officially carries it, though.

              kmfg, have you tried their other double IPA, Arctic Panzer Wolf? I actually like it a bit better than Dreadnaught, but they’re both really good. They have another Pale called Zombie Dust that’s only available on tap right now, but they’re supposed to start bottling it soon. Really delicious.

              • kmfg says:

                no, I’ll have to pick that up. A buddy used to brew for GI and then went to Three Floyds for a while before hanging it up a few years ago. He would show up at parties w/ mini kegs of gumballhead and all manner of delicious brew. sure was nice.

                I’m a huge fan of Lagunitas as well. I’d like to plan a vacation around that place, have to trick my wife into that somehow

    • Matt says:

      There is a really quite good beer selection in the grocery stores like Fairway and even whole foods (esp. the one w/ its own beer store, on Houston street) in New York City. The selection at every corner store might not be great, but there’s a quite good selection at a large number of places if you look.

    • Seitz says:

      Bill, I think it depends on your expectations. I think just about every Northside bar has at least something acceptable on tap. And more and more places are becoming beer bars. I live around Belmont and Southport, and I can think of at least four places within a five minute walk that have a tremendous selection on tap (Sheffields, Guthries, Beckett’s, and Northdown). Others have already mentioned the Map Room, but there’s also Quenchers, Twisted Spoke, Risque Cafe, Fountainhead, Four Moons, Local Option, etc. Throw in great brewpubs like Piece and Revolution, and we’re pretty lucky.

      I’m to the point where five or six good taps is really all I need out of a bar. Places like Hopleaf are fun, but a huge selection of beers really isn’t much of a turn on for me. It’s nice that you offer 200+ beers, but I’m probably only going to drink three or four, so I don’t need that many.

      It’s also nice to live a short trip away from the Half Acre brewery. Daisy Cutter is, for my money, the best year round brew we have in town, and they do a lot of great one-offs, seasonals, and collaborations. They throw some terrific parties as well.

  10. witless chum says:

    However, in that year, President Carter deregulated the beer industry, allowing the sale of malt, hops, and yeast to home brewers. Thus began the microbrew revolution.

    The Green Lantern theory of presidential beer politics!

  11. […] links to Erik Loomis, who writes: By 1979, most of these local brewers were no more. I remember a few from growing up in the Pacific […]

  12. […] enjoying a Bell’s Two-Hearted Ale or some other delicious craft beer, remember to toast Jimmy Carter. Share this:FacebookEmail Filed Under: Economy, Etc. […]

  13. Knecht Ruprecht says:

    Jonathan Bernstein says not so fast.

  14. The Heretik says:

    A home brew is a very good thing.

  15. The Heretik says:

    A home brew is a very good thing.

  16. The Heretik says:

    Apparently by inadvertent double post, a home brew is twice as good as I thought.

  17. The Heretik says:

    Apparently by inadvertent double post, a home brew is twice as good as I thought.

  18. jmack says:

    New Glarus Spotted Cow is quite a good pairing with reading this comment thread.

  19. Anonymous says:

    Don’t know how you define quality beer, but I find it highly questionable to put Belgium and the US in ahead of Germany and the Czech republic in that regard.

  20. Odder says:

    I’ll certainly side with the US if pitted against Belgium in brew quality: never been a fan of Belgians. More of a hophead here, and the B-brews tend toward that sour tang that reminds me way too much of my father’s truly crappy homebrew made in the 60s with Blue Ribbon malt syrup, cane sugar, water, and baker’s yeast– period.

  21. buckyblue says:

    Grew up in the Nort’west with Hanks, Rainier (which had the best commercials), Olympia and a little later, Red Hook. In the cheese/beer state now and plenty of local microbrews on tap around the region. Just over at BW3’s picking up take-out wings and had a Sprecher Amber, much better than the Spotted Cow, IMHO. Always drink American, or cheeseheady, if I can. Water St. in Milwaukee has no less than four brew pubs in a one mile distance, the best being the Milwaukee Ale House. No reason to drink the European stuff.

  22. Anonymous says:

    “Not only has it allowed the United States to become second only to Belgium in the production of quality beer (and I’ll take an argument that the US is #1)”

    Whoa. Number one to _Belgium_ in “quality beer”? Let’s not get carried away.

    @ second to none in my love of American IPA and other microbrews, but let’s keep SOME perspective here

  23. Oh come on now says:

    Gee whiz, another tiresome beer thread featuring a bunch of kids who probably wouldn’t know a gutter if they were rolling around in one.

  24. joejoejoe says:

    The Carter-era Department of Justice either brought or threatened to bring an antitrust suit against the proposed merger of Schlitz and G. Heilmann Brewing (makers of Old Style). I’m not sure if this move helped or hurt the move towards better quality beer. Schlitz used to be a peer of Miller and Anheiser-Busch in the brewing business. I read the antitrust tidbit in a history of brewing and always wanted to read more about the politics of the decision.

  25. nice strategy says:

    Are the best German beers even being exported? I went to a brewpub in Berlin in the early 1990s that was mindblowingly good. Based on my experience, Belgium #1, US #2. Not being a hophead, the IPA trend has grown tiresome for me and US brewers are obsessed with the stuff.

    • (the other) Davis says:

      This. As a non-hophead, during my long stint in Seattle the only way I could avoid the NW tendency to hop beers into oblivion was to seek out bars that provided a solid selection of Belgians (thank you Brouwers). Belgium at least has a nice variety of beer styles that suits all tastes, from sweet to hoppy to sour: dubbels, tripels, brown ales, sour reds, lambics (ok, those are nasty, but still).

      • Linnaeus says:

        Yep. I made this same observation on another beer thread w/r/t Pacific NW beers. Lots of good stuff, but lots of not very good stuff masquerading as good because of the damn hops. I now make a point of drinking the least hoppy beers I can find when I go to a brewpub or some place similar.

    • fish says:

      Yeah, I find most US microbrews to be horribly unbalanced (read crappy). Give them another 300+ years of experience like the Europeans, and they might find some subtlety.

  26. As a Canuck, I am honour bound to pull out my inferiority complex and wave it in your faces.

  27. CJColucci says:

    How about we all go out for a few beers?

  28. Randy Paul says:

    A diabetes diagnosis has greatly limited my beer consumption in the last year, but having lived in Germany, there were some good beers when I lived there, but Belgium in my me ory has always been better.

    I also think it’s safe to say that the better beers are brewed in countries with colder climates. I could not find good local beer in Spain, Portugal and Italy. Brazil, with the exception of Xingu Preto and Caracu (if you’re desperate) has awful beers in my experience: light and watery and Brahma’s malzebier is like beer flavored soda pop. Brazilians living here love Coors Light and Bud.

    Of course if you’re going to drink in Brazil, caipirinhas are much better and in Spain, Italy and Portugal, the wines are much better.

    • Erik Loomis says:

      Got to give Brazil credit though, those beers may be crappy, but they are very, very cold.

    • Colin says:

      Devassa was just becoming big in Rio when I first visited there in 2005, and it was remarkably good. They even had styles (a blonde lager, a red ale, an IPA, and a porter). Of course, Brazilians originally hated the “strong” taste (read: any taste at all), but in the 18 months that I was there between 2006 and 2008, it was becoming increasingly popular among the Brazilian population as their palate for actually tasty (rather than just below-zero) beer grew. I found this remarkably encouraging, and it was still going strong in 2009, though I haven’t been back since. That said, I’m not sure of Devassa’s availability outside of Rio.

  29. Mrs Tilton says:

    A question to the American readership. Is there any really drinkable American mass-market beer? I don’t mean some exquisite craft-brewed nectar made from heirloom hops massaged daily with Kobe beef and bottled in individually-blown quartz-crystal flasks. I mean stuff you’d pick up at the 7-11, or find in a bar that serves PBR non-ironically, if such a thing exist.

    I found Yuengling’s surprisingly good (soft bigotry of low expectations, yes; but I actually enjoyed drinking it.) I understand it’s pretty regional, though.

  30. stickler says:

    Mrs. Tilton:

    Sam Adams is, essentially, the Starbucks of American beer. Not the best by a long shot, but available everywhere. When you’re stuck in a beer desert, Sam Adams will be there for you.

    Starbucks may be kind of crappy coffee, but it’s light years better than Folgers in a can. Same thing with Sam Adams: I wouldn’t buy it intentionally in Oregon, but if I’m stuck in French Lick, Indiana, and it’s Sam Adams or BudMillOors, well, then the equation changes…

  31. […] have just received an alarming e-mail from an alert reader regarding this post: This is a picture of Billy Carter (Billy Beer), Jimmy Carter’s brother. Please use accurate […]

    • AM says:

      Yes, that is a picture of Billy Carter, the ne’er-do-well drunken brother of Jimmy, who may be a teetotaller (not sure, but he is certainly a traditional/religious type). Billy was briefly famous in the 1970s when he lent his name to Billy Beer. It was not good beer, which I can personally attest to. In fact, when Billy was asked what he thought of Billy Beer, he said it tasted like motor oil (or something to that effect). Not the sharpest marketer.

  32. […] beer and neoliberalism (with a follow-up) which was responding to posts from Tom Philpott and Erik Loomis on craft brew deregulation.  Crooked Timber has a […]

  33. Goaltender66 says:

    The post isn’t quite accurate. Carter didn’t deregulate the sale of malt, hops, and yeast to private people, because sale of that was never regulated to begin with.

    What Carter did was remove (or more properly, clarify) the regulations about homebrewing. Specifically, in the enabling regulations enacted with Prohibition’s repeal, the ban against homebrewing beer wasn’t expressly lifted, some would say because of a clerical oversight. Carter signed the bill enabling the homebrewing of 100 gallons of beer per person (or 200 gallons per household) per year. This created a beer underground as people started brewing beer at home as a way to make brews unavailable in the market. The underground turned mainstream about ten years later and the rest is history.

    So in a way I guess we have Carter to thank for signing the bill, but he didn’t do what the post suggests he did.

  34. Robin says:

    Where are you getting your facts to substantiate the statement “the United States to become second only to Belgium in the production of quality beer”?

    Are you talking about quantity? In which case, that’s a pretty dull point for such a large country. If it’s genuine quality, then I don’t think the US is second in the world.

    Perhaps Belgium is indeed first, but I think the US has a few more European countries in front of it as well. What about Germany, Austria and the UK?

  35. […] Lawyers, Guns and Money, Erik Loomis has a bit about the role of President Carter in deregulating micro-brews in the 70s. However please do not be confused by Loomis’ cover […]

  36. Sue says:

    Hate to tell you this, but this is BILLY Beer. If you look at wikipedia; you can see the quote that you have incorrectly attributed to President Carter.

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