Home / General / A People’s History of the Marvel Universe, Week 10: The Mutant Metaphor (Part II)

A People’s History of the Marvel Universe, Week 10: The Mutant Metaphor (Part II)


people's history week 10

Face front, true believers!

Last time, I talked about the “protean” nature of the “mutant metaphor,” its roots in science-fiction of the time, and how at least initially there was relatively little mention of mutant identity and anti-mutant prejudice.

Speaking of which, one of the curious things about the original run of X-Men, especially from the “mutant metaphor” angle, is that their mission to “protect a world that hates and fears them” means that the X-Men spent a lot more time fighting “evil mutants” (more on this next week) than defending mutants against those who “hate and fear them.” However, the major exception to this rule in the Lee/Kirby era, the one place where the X-Men confronted anti-mutant prejudice head-on, was the Sentinels:


Even when it was discussed, the “mutant metaphor” tended to be mostly back-material in the original run of X-Men. Issue #14 was an exception, where the metaphor took center stage: the issue opens with a startling revelation, as the existence of mutants shifts from urban legend and occasional siting to public knowledge as Bolivar Trask outs all of homo superior:


There’s a lot to unpack here: first, I find it curious that an anthropologist (as opposed to a geneticist or a demographer or what have you) is making this announcement, and curiouser still that an anthropologist somehow developed the advanced expertise in mechanical engineering and robotics necessary to build the Sentinels. (A clear case of the Omnidisciplinary Scientist there…) Second, as I discussed last week, the allusions here to the Cold War are much stronger than to the Civil Rights Movement – Trask namechecks “cold wars, hot wars, atom bombs and the like” (more on this next week), rather than “states’ rights, outside agitators, forced integration, etc.” Even more so than last week, the emphasis is on the mutant as Fifth Columnist – there is a resonance here between Trask’s seemingly unsupported claims that “mutants walk among us” and Joe McCarthy’s dramatic but numerally vague claims about Communist infiltration of the U.S government. The headlines that blare “Mutant Menace” could equally read “Red Menace,” suggesting a critique of a mass media more interested in shock and sensation than careful investigative reporting. Third, Trask introduces a new theme when it comes to the “mutant metaphor” – the idea of an inevitable unavoidable conflict between mutants and humans – which will continue throughout the original appearances of the Sentinels and will be continued in the Claremont run. The now famous invocation of Neanderthal and Homo Sapiens, in all its archaeological anthropological inaccuracy, has yet to appear, but you can see some of the origins of the idea here.

No matter how you analyze it,Trask’s press conference accomplishes something pretty unusual in Marvel Comics history – it gets Professor Xavier to actually engage in mutant rights politics. As I’ll discuss more next week, one of the problems with the version of the “mutant metaphor” that sees Professor X. as a Martin Luther King Jr. is that Professor X doesn’t spend that much time doing social movement work – preferring instead to train teenage mutants to act as a paramilitary force that engages in an oddly liberal version of the anarchist practice of propaganda of the deed. But here, Bolivar Trask’s call to smash the “mutant menace” drives him to action:


To begin with, given the many well-founded critiques of Silver Age Xavier’s character, it is interesting that Trask’s press conference strikes an instant nerve – clearly Charles has been waiting for the day that mutants are out for some time, and for all that he may disagree with Magneto about the possibility of human-mutant coexistence, it’s interesting that he expects this revelation to lead to a “witch hunt for mutants” and the “wheels of persecution” beginning to grind, without his intervention. And speaking of the sci-fi roots of the “mutant metaphor,” the page to our left really makes this clear with the “artist’s interpretation” of Trask’s remarks. Big-headed widows-peaked aliens wielding the whip over human slaves, being carried through futuristic cities in palanquins, and re-enacting the gladiatorial combat of the Roman Coliseum – this dystopia owes far more to Buck Rogers, Flash Gordon, and John Carter of Mars than it does the racist paranoid imaginary of the 1950s and 1960s.

However, it is the theory of politics here that I am primarily interested in, because Xavier here is depicted as practicing politics in an extremely establishment fashion. Rather than engaging in public protest, direct action, or a media campaign, Xavier’s understanding of politics begins and ends with a “public televised debate” between two academics. And indeed, in both appearance and his debating style, Professor X resembles nothing so much as the arid intellectualism of Adlai Stephenson-era liberalism. Acting (somehow) as the “spokesman for America’s intellectual community,” Xavier’s argument is pitched less on terms of human rights or moral calls or the Constitution than a general statement about the dangers of “ignorance” and “unreasoning fear.” (There might be a link here to Gunnar Myrdal’s famous description of American racism as a mental pathology, but it’s a stretch.)

On the other hand, it’s hard to make a judgement about depiction vs. endorsement – Lee and Kirby show American families at home and the American public on the street outside the storefront window reacting unfavorably – questioning whether Xavier is a mutant, dismissing the “egg-headed old stuffed-shirt,” angrily resentful that one of their children might be a mutant or that they might be ignorant. (It is interesting, however, that they can’t make up their minds as to whether he’s a “communist” or a “right-winger”- possibly a sign that Lee and Kirby were trying to straddle political divides there.)

By contrast, Trask is all emotion and ad-hominem attack, especially in his McCarthyesque (if true) insinuation that “perhaps the professor has an ulterior motive for his defense of mutants.” On a far more important point, Trask has no intent of having the issue be decided by the political system – well before the debate, Trask has clearly decided that “whether I win or lose this debate does not matter,” because he’s going to use his robots to squish his opponent. Thus, the Sentinels:



In classic sci-fi fashion, Trask’s robotic creations turn on their creator the first time they are used, because you don’t mess with the Frankenstein formula. And so, the threat of mutant superiority is trumped by the rise of the machine: as with other stories of the robot uprising, the Sentinels’ rebellion is founded in the fact that their superior robotic intelligence makes them more suited to be the master than the slave; at the same time, in deference to their programming, the Sentinels justify their future overlordship over humanity by arguing that in order to protect humanity they must rule humanity. And in one last nod to the original, Trask remains useful to his creations only because they need his mastery of reproduction to propagate their species.

What elevates the Sentinels beyond mere sci-fi pastiche, however, is their visual aesthetic. Without a doubt the most recognizably Kirbyesque element of the X-Men Universe, there is something about the design that makes it instantly iconic in a genre not lacking for giant robots. The red-and-purple (later changed to pink-and-purple) onesie and boots and gloves aren’t particularly memorable on their own – the secret is in the stocky, short-limbed proportions that make them look like action figures come to (malevolent) life, their increasing scale (first generation Sentinels stand at 10 feet tall, making humans seem like children; later generations will start at 20 feet tall and only get bigger from there) and of course Kirby’s enduring obsession with the Olmec head that arguably reached its peak with Master Mold:


There is something genuinely uncanny about the frozen, disapproving visage of Master Mold, which towers above the Mark I Sentinels even as they tower above Bolivar Trask, assuming both the pose and position of some dark Olympian god, even as it demands the secrets of life while threatening death.

Another unusual element of the Sentinels is that they are a threat the X-Men themselves could not directly defeat – while the X-Men successfully penetrate the secret base of the Sentinels and manage to escape once captured, they never manage to come to blows with the Master Mold himself. And part of the reason why is that, following the conventions of science-fiction, Trask has to sacrifice himself to destroy Master Mold and prevent the Sentinels from propagating.


However, the Sentinels can never be destroyed forever – sooner or later, they will return to threaten mutantkind. In issue #57, less than 10 issues away from the series’ decline into reprints, the Sentinels return, and so do the themes and allusions of the original:


Here, the parallels to McCarthyism which had previously been more of a matter of tone than content all of the sudden become text, with Judge Chalmers’ Federal Council on Mutant Activities being an obvious play on the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Which I suppose makes Larry Trask, the younger, flashier, and more emotional assistant to Judge Chalmers, the Roy Cohn stand-in. The manila folders of evidence that Trask slams down on the table similarly resemble the leaked FBI reports that were key to the careers of both Senator McCarthy and HUAC.


On the other hand, Trask brings a starkly personal edge to his political argument that doesn’t particularly fit the metaphor – rather the allusion is more to the feud and the vendetta and their eternal cycles of retribution. Similarly, Larry Trask’s description of the mutant threat bears little resemblance to the idea of the mutant as the unknown Other – the mutant threat he sees is out in the open and more active than hypothethical, and so he gives it a new term:


The term “mutant war,” reminiscent of predictions of “race war” in the racist paranoid imagination, suggests a very different direction for the mutant metaphor, one that will be built on later to imagine mutant future dystopias that will almost always revolve around the presence of the Sentinels – more on this in a future People’s History of the Marvel Universe issue where I’ll discuss “Days of Future Past” and how Chris Claremont invented the Terminator franchise.

Also in this second outing, we see a renewed focus on the way that media shapes political debate – or if I’m being cynical, the way that the media allows comic books to present politics through a simplified image rather than trying to depict the complicated process of political organization. Hence the use of talking heads:



For those of you born after 1970 (which includes me), these two individuals are Chett Huntley and David Brinkley, who chaired the Huntley-Brinkley Report as NBC’s answer to Walter Cronkite between 1956 and 1970. This rare example of real-life figures making an appearance in X-Men comics is intended to give verisimilitude to the political news, which shows the meaning of the Sentinels shifting.

As already suggested by the Federal part of Chalmers’ Council on Mutant Activities, where the Mark I Sentinels were the rogue creations of an individual mad scientist, the Mark II Sentinels are hunting down mutants on behalf of the U.S government. This represents an entirely new paradigm for the X-universe, and foreshadows the X-Men’s outlaw status in Claremont’s run. Whereas in 1963 Professor Xavier could work comfortably with the FBI (more on this in a future issue), by 1969 the reading public was perhaps more willing to consider that the government might employ genocidal robots to hunt down American citizens for “the indescribable sin of being…a mutant,” in what Huntley and Brinkley describe as a “familiar” reaction to the “mutant problem.” Given the more overt comparison to the Holocaust, I’m not surprised to learn that then-Marvel-intern Chris Claremont offered story advice on these issues.

At the same time, we also see a rare departure for the X-Comics when Huntley an Brinkley explain that “Americans begin to question the wisdom – even the constitutionality – of this modern witch hunt.” We’ve seen anti-mutant prejudice described before, but we haven’t yet seen it be described as an explicitly political controversy, with the issue being raised of whether the U.S Constitution (presumably the 14th Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection and due process) protects mutant citizens against the state. Given that we almost never see mutants being discussed in political terms in the Lee/Kirby era, let alone in such similar terms to the Civil Rights Movement, this feels much more like the Claremont era’s discussion of the Mutant Registration Act (another topic for a future issue) than anything else from the original run.

Unfortunately for my purposes, as soon as we get this soupçon of politics, the whole thing veers back into sci-fi, albeit more reminiscent of high-concept shows like the Twilight Zone or Roddenberry’s Star Trek. Once again, the moment that the Sentinels are used, they rebel against their masters. It really makes you wonder why people keep building them. (Incidentally, this is one aspect of these characters that I wish had been used more in later years, especially in Morrison’s run, the aftermath of M-Day, and so forth). Here, the ironic twist is that mutant-hating Larry Trask is himself a mutant:


As morals go, it’s a bit on the nose – a little bit closer to The Scary Door than Twilight Zone. On the other hand, it’s not like the idea that a rabid ideologue secretly is what they most despise, their passion reflecting both intense denial and projection, is at odds with realism.

And it has one other advantage – with Larry Trask sidelined, there’s no Trask available to sacrifice their life to stop the Sentinels, which means we get the best moment in the whole of the original X-Men run, where Scott Summers executes a perfect Logic Bomb that convinces the Sentinels to make war on “the very heart of the raging sun itself!”




As blunt as a metaphor for weighty themes like genocide, bigotry, and oppression they might be, the Sentinels were pretty much all the original X-Men had in the way of anti-mutant antagonists. And if you’re going to be fiddling with “mutant metaphors,” you’re going to need them around, otherwise people might start to ask uncomfortable questions about why the X-Men spend all of their time hunting down “evil mutants” on behalf of J. Edgar Hoover, rather than fighting their own oppression.

But that’s a topic for…next issue of A People’s History of the Marvel Universe!

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  • gurkle2

    The X-Men were so much better when Neal Adams took over the art, the difference is almost jaw-dropping – one of Marvel’s worst books instantly became one of its best.

    • It’s a quite impressive stylistic shift, where all of the sudden you’re moving from very conventional panel layouts, “camera” angles, etc. (although Kirby is still Kirby, can’t take that away from him) to wild experimentation with paneling, a more photo-realistic and expressive approach to faces, some interesting uses of negative space that I didn’t include in the image gallery, etc.

    • Halloween Jack

      Yeah, his work here is as striking and an incredible contrast to the previous artist (I don’t think it was Kirby who immediately preceded him, but another Marvel artist–Don Heck, maybe? I know that Jim Steranko was on the book for a short while); it’s not unlike Bill Sienkiewicz, who started out as an Adams imitator before developing his own style, becoming the artist on the New Mutants in the eighties, and whose contributions included Warlock (not to be confused with the cosmic hero Adam Warlock), a sort of alien techno-organic shapeshifter who’s like a living Expressionist sculpture.

      • Steranko came before Adams, and then there was Werner Wroth before him and then Kirby.

      • JMP

        Warlock, who Rob Liefeld killed off because he wasn’t talented enough to draw the character. Of course he eventually got better.

        • Halloween Jack

          The one X-person whose anatomical incorrectness is a feature, not a bug, and that’s who Liefeld can’t handle. Go figure.

  • Why is the story about the mutant menace on the sports page?

    • Hogan

      And where can I find the adult western that was preeempted by the debate? AFAF

    • Lit3Bolt

      To be fair, Shula’s Miami Dolphins were pretty dominant in the early 70’s…

    • Because for some reason Kirby wanted to draw Xavier facing right rather than left. Possibly a 180 degree rule issue, but not sure.

  • David Hunt

    I can see the influence of the original Star Trek that had just recently gone off the air. In a move worthy of Jim Kirk himself, Cyclops convinces the Sentinels to throw themselves into the Sun.

    It’s amazing how many super-intelligent computers Kirk destroyed just by talking to them. I can think of four at a moment’s notice. The poor things should have known to kill him to moment they heard his name…

    • Yep. Which raises an interesting point – if Cyclops had a more Kirkian personality rather than his rather Spockian personality, would he be more popular?

      • CP

        I don’t know, but I’d love to see Shatner’s odd speech patterns printed out as text dialogue.

        • David Hunt

          Well, it’s not exactly the same, but during the 80s I noticed that if you stressed the words that were actually bolded on the page instead of the ones that context would indicate, you could get some…odd readings. It sometimes seemed that words were stressed at random.

    • wjts

      It’s amazing how many super-intelligent computers Kirk destroyed just by talking to them.

      I have a vague memory of a “Wayne’s World” sketch from SNL where they listed the top 10 Star Trek episodes. One of them was, “That one where Kirk makes a computer self-destruct by asking it an impossible question like, ‘What is Love?’. (Note: We think this happened a few times.)”

      • Latverian Diplomat

        In fairness to Kirk, it was usually more sophisticated than that. He would convince the computer that it was violating it’s own purpose. e.g.,

        “You were intended to save lives, but you are a murderer” (M-5)
        “You are destroying the society you claim to protect.” (Landru)
        “You are too imperfect to judge the imperfection of others.” (Nomad)

        If you want a truly hacky example of “Triumph through paradox”, there’s a Prisoner episode (“The General”) where No. 6 just asks the computer “Why?”

    • Ahuitzotl

      It’s kind of amazing there aren’t more people that destroyed themselves after talking to Kirk, really.

  • Assistant Professor

    Question for you Steve: Are these entries going to find an end-point as a book?

    • Maybe? It entirely depends on whether I can get Marvel to let me use the images, because the project stands or falls on that.

      • Assistant Professor

        Fair point! Well, if this series *does* become a book, I will buy the hell out of it (and order a copy for my library as well).

        • I definitely want to do it at some point, but it’ll be down the road and the permission is definitely a make or break.

  • I know you said that this will be discussed in a future installment, but I keep coming back to the notion that mutant/inhuman/metahuman organizations exist to fight evil mutants/inhumans/metahumans, not advocate for and protect their own people. A real world analogy would be if your neighborhood mosque spent nearly all of its budget and energies on training a militia to go to the Middle East and fight against ISIS. And yet this is such a common trope, not just in universes that have a few superheroes in them (such as the current MCU, more or less) but ones that have randomly occurring enhanced people who are feared, hunted, and acted against by authorities. It’s really telling that we’ve taken it in that this is what marginalized groups should do, if they have to have superpowers as well as being marginalized.

    I don’t know how good a story it would be (it certainly wouldn’t be a very comics-y one) but I’d really love it if just once one of these organizations would focus on things like fighting housing and jobs discrimination, highlighting police brutality and unfair sentencing, and serving its own community – in other words, doing what an actual social advocacy organization does.

    • LeeEsq

      Considering the power level of most mutants, they really don’t have much to worry about police brutality. Most of them are people of mass destruction.

      • Canonically, most mutants aren’t. There’s various classification schemes, but it’s far more common to have low- to moderate-level mutants than high-level.

        And we’ll get to the police brutality later, when we get to Days of Future Past and the Mutant Registration Act…

        • LeeEsq

          Even a low to moderate level powered mutant is going to be tough compared to even a very strong regular human though this might be power dependent.

          • Latverian Diplomat

            Comics kind of gloss over how important being bulletproof would be when throwing down with the authorities, and not just for mutants.

          • Very power dependent. I highly recommend the first arc of the most recent All-New X-Men run, which revolves around a bunch of hotheaded mutant student radicals who blunder their way into a fight with the cops.

      • In theory, yes, but in practice that’s the sort of thing that might cause more problems than it solves. If you’re a mid-powered mutant and your response to being harassed by the police is to fight back, then at best you’ve made things worse for all the other mid- and low-powered mutants in your vicinity, and at worst you’ve landed yourself a charge of assaulting a police officer, with an attendant jail sentence of several years.

        One of the things that this sort of story rarely acknowledges is that unless mutant characters are willing to go full Magneto and put themselves beyond the pale of society and the rule of law, there are harsh penalties for acting violently against the authorities (or even seeming to do so). Sometimes those penalties are acceptable, or you’ve simply had enough (something like the Stonewall riots, for example) but it takes a while to get to that point, and there are significant inducements not to do so.

        • LeeEsq

          If you really want to know why we aren’t getting mutant civil rights stories, its because of money. There might be an audience for them but even among readers with liberal politics, most are still going to want traditional superhero stories and any reasonable permutation from them. Than you have the non-liberal readers in the United States and the international audience to consider. Since fans of good mutant vs. bad mutant stories out number the ones that want mutant civil rights stories than that is what you get.

          • I honestly don’t think it’s that calculated. I think that most comics writers are caught up in certain habits of thought that stress respectability politics, and prioritize the anxiety of the majority over the feelings (and rights) of the minority. I don’t think they’re intentionally trying to downplay how an actual civil rights/social movement storyline would play out so much as that they really don’t know it.

        • ^ See comment above.

          Also, it very much depends on the legal circumstances at the time – if the Mutant Registration Act is active vs. your standard stop-and-frisk.

    • CP

      This complaint is why, despite its status as the Phantom Menace of the movieverse, I’ve never really been able to hate X-Men: The Last Stand. It’s the movie that shows you that church gathering of ordinary mutants there to discuss a political issue, which is the first time they’ve actually felt like a large and diverse demographic (and not just Team Mutant Jedi and Team Mutant Sith like the first two movies) that nevertheless has enough of a common identity and counterculture for events like that to happen. And that gives you a huge controversy affecting that community that isn’t just a black-and-white situation like the Registration Act, and how different mutants react to it. And that give you an evolving political climate in the background (presumably coming from Xavier’s meeting with the president at the end of X2), where the U.S. government now has an entire department to deal with mutant issues that not only isn’t actively hostile to them but is actually run by a mutant.

      Are there still a truckload of bones to pick with the movie? Yep, but the above still made it worth the ticket for me. Could the politics and social advocacy have been done better or found better issues to focus on? Sure, but it’s still more than any other movie in the X-Men-verse did.

      • I would say the main issue is trying to do the “Gifted” storyline and the “Dark Phoenix” storyline at the same time, which is a huge mistake.

      • The one thing that has stuck with me from that movie is the scene where Magneto goes to meet the evil (read: not associated with Xavier and his school) mutants and they’re all covered with tattoos and body modifications, and scoff at him for not being the same. The scene isn’t entirely friendly to their point of view – Magneto chides them for demanding that he be inked by showing off his Auschwitz tattoo – but I was struck by its implication that mutants have a community and a culture beyond their shared genetic abnormality, and that said culture is deliberately trying to rub its difference and non-conformity in the face of normal society.

        There’s maybe a faint hint of this in the future-set scenes of Days of Future Past (though even then, it’s mostly the non-speaking, PoC mutants who have these sorts of markings, and they’re quickly killed off), but otherwise I’m not aware of another film or show that acknowledges that this might happen. It’s a shame that the rest of the movie is so awful.

        • Halloween Jack

          The scene in X3 hinted at there being a real community, and might have done something genuinely interesting with that, but the movie had too many different agendas–slapping together the mutant “cure” of Kavita Rao’s from Whedon’s run on Astonishing, plus the Dark Phoenix storyline, plus bringing in the last two of the original X-Men while two others were being killed off. My impression of the Mutant Town storyline in the X-books was that someone had obviously read George R.R. Martin’s Wild Cards anthology and decided to create their own version of “Jokertown”.

        • The mutant culture stuff is why I love Grant Morrison’s run, despite the parts of it I dislike.

    • I entirely agree. I’m interested in looking at District X, which was a policier set in “Mutant-town” on the LES, to see if they do anything with the kind of topics you mention.

      And then there’s my idea for a period piece series where the X-Men stayed in San Francisco and got engaged in local politics…

  • Gregor Sansa

    While we’re in Nerdsville: any plans for a post about the zombie rabid puppies?

    (ETA: after all, if you click on the name of the commenter above, you’ll see that I’m not that far OT here.)

    • The Hugos aren’t something I know much about, so I’ll defer to GRRM on this one.

      • Funny you should mention this, since I was just thinking that this series would make a great nominee in the Best Related Work category.

        (I wouldn’t get my hopes up too high: even if next year’s nominees aren’t hijacked by the puppies again, getting traction for that kind of nomination is not easy. But it’s definitely something I intend to call attention to when the time comes.)

  • Manny Kant

    Isn’t that Pietro convincing the Sentinel to fly into the sun? Or is Scott wearing a Quicksilver costume for some reason?

    • David Hunt

      It is, indeed, Cyclops in a Quicksilver costume. I haven’t read the issue in a good many years, but IIRC, it was part of a scheme to throw off the Sentinels’ combat algorithms by having the X-Men impersonate different mutants and surprise them.

      • Manny Kant

        Ah, there you go. I’ve not read this story, but have read Avengers 102-104, from a few years later, where Pietro does, in fact, confront some Sentinel robots that are associated in some manner with Larry Trask. So you can understand my confusion.

      • Quite correct. The Mark II’s adapt to mutant powers, so the X-Men swap costumes in order to trick them in adapting to powers they don’t actually have and not adapting to the ones they do have.

        Which suggests that Trask’s database does recognition based on superhero costumes, which isn’t really practical for most mutants.

  • twbb

    Is that really a Kirby cover? Most of the characters don’t have 95% of their faces covered with inexplicable shadows.

    • It’s got a giant Olmec head, do you really have to ask?

  • twbb

    “otherwise people might start to ask uncomfortable questions about why the X-Men spend all of their time hunting down “evil mutants” on behalf of J. Edgar Hoover, rather than fighting their own oppression.”

    Respectability Mutant Politics.

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