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Ukraine Mark I

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By B. Shippih Б.Шіппіх – Б.Шіппіх Згинуть наші воріженьки… Вид-во „Вернигора”. Київ. 1917р. http://www.geocities.com/ua_ukraine/ukrayinarus090.html (Источник не существует), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1837575

Some lessons from Ukraine’s first modern experience with independence…

The first modern, independent Ukraine emerged out of the chaos on the Eastern Front of World War I. With victorious German and Austro-Hungarian armies on the march, the war effort of the Provisional Government of Russia collapsed in late 1917. In the churn of the Bolshevik Revolution, a group seized power in Kyiv and rejected the authority of the Moscow government.  In January 1918 this council (or Rada) declared independence, a declaration which was ignored by the Bolsheviks. Fighting ensued and resulted in Russian victories that pushed the Rada out of Kyiv.  Defeat seemed imminent but was forestalled by German intervention. The Germans swept the Russians out of Ukraine (including Crimea) and helped to formally establish the first independent Ukraine as a client state.

Adam Tooze goes into plenty of detail about the German and Austrian negotiations with Ukraine in 1918; lots of fascinating statecraft, and just one more reason to recommend Deluge.

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